Sacrements et Succession Apostolique

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Antoine
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Sacrements et Succession Apostolique

Message par Antoine » mar. 29 juil. 2003 15:56

Date : 14.03 20h26
auteur : Axel


J'ai lu dans le Catéchisme Orthdoxe de Mgr
Alexandre Semenoff Tiam-Chamsky que
l'Eglise orthodoxe ne ré-ordonnait pas
systématiquement les prêtres hétérodoxes
se convertissant à Elle. Par ailleurs, outre le fait que
l'Eglise orthodoxe
russe considère comme valides les baptêmes par
aspersion, ne considère plus être
une nécessité la re-baptisation des hétérodoxes qui
veulent se convertir à
l'orthodoxie.
Tout cela me parait téméraire, irresponsable,
gravissime et extrêmement
dangereux. Et je m'explique: l'Eglise du Christ
depuis son origine a pris soin
des Sacrements Divins comme on prend soin de la
prunelle de ses yeux. Elle a une
vive conscience de son Devoir Sacré de la Garde
Sainte de ces Mystères. Or,
s'agissant de l'Eglise catholique romaine, ne savez-
vous pas, ou n'est-ce pas le
devoir des hiérarques orthodoxes de savoir, que la
"réforme" liturgique a
touchée, que dis-je bouleversée, les Sept
Sacrements? Ne savez-vous pas qu'en
matière de Sacrement de l'Ordre l'Eglise romaine qui
se gargarise de posséder la
Succession Apostolique et disant sur un ton
condescendant qu'Elle la partage
avec l'Eglise Orthodoxe ferait mieux de se taire? En
effet, le Sacrement de
l'Ordre (qui confère la grâce diaconale, sacerdotale
et surtout épiscopale)
jusqu'à 1965 n'a pas été substantiellement modifié
Lui qui remonte à la
Tradition reçue des Apôtres? En fait, on peut dire
que ce Sacrement qu'il n'a
fait, dans la partie latine de l'Eglise romaine, l'objet
d'aucune modification
d'importance de Saint Leon Le Grand (461) à la
"réforme" liturgique de 1965-1968.

Avec le nouveau rituel de l'Ordre,le but est de créer
un ordinal commun avec les
anglicans (dont l'artisan de la réforme, Cranmer, ne
s'est pas géné pour fouler
aux pieds les vénérables traditions liturgiques
reçues du Seigneur, des Apôtres
et des Pères pour façonner une liturgie purement
humaine dans la perpective
théologique de Luther).
Dans les paroles de la consécration des évêques du
nouveau rituel, on ne
retrouve pas les paroles essentielles et communes
aux 76 rituels apostoliques
existant dans l'Eglise Universelle (Orient et
Occident)!
Ce travail de comapraison des rituels existants a été
fait:
This was indeed done by Jean Moran, and still later,
by the English bishops in
their "Vindication of the Bull" Apostolicae curae."

"In each of the rites which the Catholic Church has
recognized, the 'essential
form' (c'est à dire les paroles essentielles pour que
le Sacrement soit valide:
note perso à l'usage des lecteurs orthodoxes pour
lesquels le vocabulaire
scolastiques done de l'urticaire)) is contained in a
'consecrating prayer' to
accompany the imposition of hands, and these
prayers are in all cases of the
same type, defining in some way or other the Order
to which the candidate is
being promoted, and beseeching god to bestow
upon him the graces of his new
state."[63]

They then proceed to give a list of these prayers
which includes the ancient
Leonine Sacramentary "still preserved in the modern
Pontifical" (jusqu'à la
réforme liturgique de 1965-1968: note perso.), the
Greek, the Syro-Maronite
(which is also the Syro-Jacobite), the Nestorian, the
Armenian, the Coptic (or
Alexandro-Jacobite) and the Abyssinian, together
with the ancient Gallican, the
rite in the Apostolic constitutions, and the "Canons of
St. Hippolytus." They
proceed to list the significant words respectively in
each - the "High
Priesthood" (summi sacerdotii), the "Pontifical
dignity," the term "Bishop,:"
the "perfect (or complete) priest," and the
"Episcopate." This specification is
to be found in all the known used forms (i.e., in the
essential words of the
various Western Catholic and Orthodox
Churches).[64] It is even found in the
Canons of Hippolytus. The form of Paul VI does not
fill these requirements.
Present in the words specified by Pius XII, it is
conspicuous by its absence in
the post-Conciliar form. Neither the rank, nor the
power, nor a clear equivalent
is present. And as Leo XIII made clear in his
Apostolicae curae, the mentioning
of the Holy Ghost - if "Governing Spirit" is in fact the
Holy Ghost -is
insufficient.

Paul VI, le promulgateur de ces réformes, pour s'en
justifier affirma que:

"it was necessary to add, delete, or change certain
things, either to restore
texts to their earlier integrity, to make the
expressions clearer, or to
describe the sacramental effects better... it appeared
appropriate to take from
ancient sources the consecratory prayer which is
found in the document called
the Apostolic Tradition of Hippolytus of Rome,
written in the beginning of the
third century, and which is still used in large parts in
the ordination rites of
the Coptic and Western Syrian liturgies."

Needless to say, he does not tell us why it was
necessary "to add, delete or
change certain things" which had presumably been
adequate for some 2000 years.
As to whether the result expresses things more
"clearly" or "describes the
sacramental effects better," this the reader will have
to see for himself. But
Paul VI is up to his old tricks again. While he is
correct in pointing to the
"Apostolic Tradition of Hippolytus" as the source of
his new rite, he stretches
the truth to the limit in stating that this highly
questionable document is
'still used in large part in the ordination rites of the
Coptic and Western
Syrian liturgies." In fact the Hippolytus text has
almost nothing in common with
the eastern rites, and the crucial words - especially
the critical phrase of
"governing spirit" is nowhere to be found within
these eastern rites.

Let us then compare these still used rites with the
new rite. The first
paragraph below is translated from pages 204-5 of
the Pontifical of the
Antiochean Syrians, Part II, printed in 1952, Sharfe,
Lebanon, and carries the
Imprimatur of Ignatius Gabriel Cardinal Tappuni,
Syrian Patriarch of Antioch.
This is the rite used by the Coptic and West Syrian
Liturgies. The second
paragraph is the consecratory prayer promulgated
by Paul VI - supposedly taken
from the first. It is taken from the new rite in English
as used in the United
States.

THE ANTIOCHEAN PONTIFICAL

"O God, Thou hast created everything by Thy power
and established the universe
by the will of Thine only Son. Thou hast freely given
us the grasp of truth and
made known to us Thy holy and excellent love. Thou
hast given Thy beloved and
only-begotten Son, the Word, Jesus Christ, the Lord
of Glory, as pastor and
physician of our souls. By His Precious Blood Thou
hast founded Thy Church and
ordained in it all grades pertaining to the priesthood.
Thou hast given guidance
that we may please Thee in that the knowledge of
the name of Thine Anointed has
increased and spread in the whole world. Send on
this Thy servant Thy Holy and
Spiritual Breath so that he may tend and oversee the
flock entrusted to him,
namely - to anoint priests, to ordain deacons, to
dedicate altars and churches,
to bless houses, to make appointments, to heal, to
judge, to save, to deliver,
to loose and bind, to invest and divest, as well as to
excommunicate. Grant him
all the power of Thy saints - the same power Thou
gavest to the Apostles of
Thine only begotten Son - that he may become a
glorious highpriest with the
honor of Moses, the dignity of the venerable Jacob,
in the throne of the
Patriarchs. Let Thy people and the flock of Thine
inheritance be well
established through this Thy servant. Give him
wisdom and prudence and let him
understand Thy will, O Lord so that he can discern
sinful things, know the
sublimities of justice and judgement. Grant him this
power to solve difficult
problems and all bonds of iniquity."

PAUL VI'S CONSECRATORY PRAYER

God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Father of
mercies and God of all
consolation, you dwell in heaven, yet look with
compassion on all that is humble.
You know all things before they come to be; by your
gracious word you have
established the plan of your Church. From the
beginning you chose the
descendants of Abraham to be your holy nation. You
established rulers and
priests and did not leave your sanctuary without
ministers to serve you. From
the creation of the world you have been pleased to
be glorified by those whom
you have chosen. (All consecrating bishops) So
now, pour out upon this chosen
one that power which is from you, the governing
spirit whom you gave to your
beloved son Jesus Christ, the Spirit given by him to
the Holy Apostles, who
founded the Church in every place to be your temple
for the unceasing glory and
praise of your name. (The essential words of Paul
VI's form are in italics, but
are not to be found in the Antiochean Pontifical.)
(Principal consecrator alone)
Father, you know all hearts. You have chosen your
servant for the office of
bishop. May he be a shepherd to your holy flock,
and a high priest blameless in
your sight, ministering to you night and day; may he
always gain the blessing of
your favor and offer gifts of holy Church. Through
the Spirit who gives the
grace of high priesthood grant him the power to
forgive sins as you have
commanded, to assign ministries as you have
decreed, to loose every bond by the
authority which you gave to your Apostles. May he
be pleasing to you by his
gentleness and purity of heart, presenting a fragrant
offering to you, through
Jesus Christ, your Son, through whom glory and
power and honor are yours with
the holy spirit in your holy Church now and forever.
(All) Amen."

(The essential "form" as specified by Paul VI is
italicized. The two words
printed in bold script represent the only two
significant words that the prayers
have in common. In the Antiochean rite, while the
essential words are not
specified - the theological terms of form and matter
are not used in the eastern
Churches - the bishops hands - the matter of the
sacrament - are placed on the
ordinand's head for the entire prayer, while in the
new Roman rite, only during
the repetition of the essential form. As pointed out in
the introduction, form
and matter must be united to effect the sacrament.)

Clearly the prayer taken from the Antiochean
Pontifical is intended to
consecrate a Catholic bishop and fulfills several
times over all the
requirements we have discussed in the section on
the History of Sacramental
Rites. The latter has barely a dozen words in
common with the former and is
suitable for use in the most liberal Protestant
communions. It is hardly just to
say that one is derived from the other.

Obviously deleted from the eastern liturgical prayer
are such phrases as
"anointing priests" - there is a vast difference
between "ordaining priests" and
"assigning ministries." Also deleted are references to
his function of
protecting the Church against heresy. The post-
Conciliar "bishop" is to "loose
every bond" but not "to loose and bind, to invest and
divest, as well as to
excommunicate." Retained however are two
important words - that of "bishop" and
"high priest," but they are placed outside the
"essential" form. Moreover, one
can seriously question whether the terms "bishop"
and "high priest" can be
understood in the Catholic sense of the words. In
view of any proper indication
in the significatio ex adjunctis, one can be permitted
to doubt it.

Where then does the new "form" of Paul VI come
from. The answer is the
"Apostolic Tradition" of Hippolytus.[69]

THE "APOSTOLIC TRADITION" OF HIPPOLYTUS

The real source of Paul VI's new consecratory
prayer is the so-called "Apostolic
Tradition" of Hippolytus - a composite document of
dubious origins for which
there is no evidence whatsoever that it was ever
actually used to consecrate a
bishop. We shall consider two aspects of the
problem raised by the use of this
source: Who was Hippolytus and what do we really
know about the form he used?

Hippolytus was a highly enigmatic person who lived
in the third century. He was
born about 160 and is thought to have been a
disciple of St. Iranaeus. He became
a priest under Pope Zephyrinus about the year 198
and won great respect for his
learning and eloquence. Because of doctrinal
differences with the Pope,
Hippolytus left Rome, found a bishop to consecrate
him, and established a
schismatic Church, as a result of which he was
formally excommunicated. He drew
up his "Apostolic Traditions" while he was outside
the Church, presumably to
establish a "pontifical" for his schismatic sect.
Subsequently, after Maximus
became emperor and instituted a new persecution
against the Christians, both he
and the reigning Pontiff (Pontianus) were arrested
and sent to the mines in
Sardinia. It was here, just prior to his death, that he
became reconciled to the
Church. both he and the Pope were martyred
together and later canonized. The
Hippolytic schism ended with this event.

The text written by Hippolytus as a "Pontifical" for his
schismatic sect was
named by him "The Apostolic Traditions." (He was
not the last to lend authority
to his acts by referring them back to "earlier
authority"!) In so far as
Hippolytus was extremely conservative - he objected
to the legitimate relaxation
of the Church's laws, especially those related to
forgiving and readmitting to
communion those Christians who in times of
persecution had sacrificed to the
Roman gods, it has been assumed that he
preserved the rites then in use - but
this is by no means certain.

Now Hippolytus wrote in Greek, and once the
Roman Church adopted the almost
exclusive use of Latin, his works were for all
practical purposes forgotten in
the West. The particular work in question, "The
Apostolic Traditions," was
rediscovered by Job Ludolf in Ethiopia in 1691. In
1848 another version came to
light through the study of Coptic documents. Still
later a Sahidic version was
found, and then, around 1900, a Latin translation
from the Greek in the sixth
century came to light. None of these versions were
complete and scholars
therefore were forced to "reconstruct" the various
segments in order to produce
a relatively cohesive document. According to
Professor Burton Scott Easton of
Cambridge University, we can summarize what we
know of this document in the
following words:

"The original Greek of the Apostolic tradition has not
been recovered, except in
small fragments. the Latin is generally trustworthy,
but is incomplete. The only
other primary version, the Sahidic, is likewise
incomplete, and the results of
the moderate abilities of its translator have been
further confused in later
transmission. The Arabic is a secondary text,
offering little that the Sahidic
does not contain. The only practically complete
version, the Ethiopic, is
tertiary and is otherwise unreliable. All four of these
versions presuppose a
common Greek original, in which two different
endings have been conflated. The
other sources, the Constitutions, the Testament and
the Canons are frank
revisions, in which the original is often edited out of
recognition or even
flatly contradicted. Under these conditions the
restoration of a really accurate
text is manifestly impossible."[70]

With this in mind, and with absolutely no idea of
what Hippolytus considered to
be the "form" or essential words involved, let us
consider his consecratory
prayer as the scholars have reconstructed it:

"God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Father of
mercies and god of all
comfort, who dwellest on high, yet hast respect to
the lowly, who knowest all
things before they come to pass. Thou hast
appointed the borders of Thy Church
by the words of Thy grace, predestinating from the
beginning the righteous race
of Abraham. And making them princes and priests,
and leaving not thy sanctuary
without a ministry, Thou has glorified among those
(or possibly, in those
places) whom Thou hast chosen. Pour forth now the
power which is Thine, of Thy
governing spirit which (Greek version)... Thou gavest
to Thy beloved Servant
(Greek but not Latin) Jesus Christ which he
bestowed on his holy apostles
(Latin)... who established the Church in every place,
the Church which Thou hast
sanctified unto unceasing glory and praise of Thy
name. Thou who knowest the
hearts of all, grant to this thy servant whom Thou
hast chosen to be bishop, (to
feed Thy holy flock, in some versions) and to serve
as Thy high priest without
blame, ministering night and day, to propitiate Thy
countenance without ceasing
and to offer Thee the gifts of the holy Church. And
by the Spirit of high-
priesthood to have authority to remit sins according
to Thy commandment, to
assign the lots according to Thy precept, to loose
very bond according to the
authority which Though givest Thy apostles, and to
please Thee in meekness and
purity of heart, offering to thee an odour of sweet
savour. Through Thy Servant
Jesus Christ our Lord, through whom be to Thee
glory, might honor, and with the
Holy Spirit in the holy Church both now and always
world without end. Amen
(Greek)."[71]

Such then is the true nature and source of the post-
Conciliar sacramental prayer
for ordaining bishops. Clearly we have no exact
knowledge of the form that
Hippolytus used, and just as clearly, there is no
evidence that the form adopted
by Paul VI was ever used to ordain anybody. What
are we to say when the Church
teaches:

"Matter and Form must be certainly valid. Hence one
may not follow a probable
opinion and use either doubtful matter or form.
Acting otherwise, one commits a
sacrilege."[72]

Terrible! Et les hierarques orthodoxes qui foncent
vers l'unité sacramentelle
avec les catholiques concilaires romains!

S'agissant du Baptême, ne savez-vous pas, que la
réforme liturgique, en sus de
la pratique habituelle antérieure du Baptême par
aspersion, a quasiment
supprimée les exorcismes qui avaient tellement
d'importance qu'on les appelaient
l'exorcisme mineur? Et surtout, quelle intention
aujourd'hui est affichée par le
clergé catholique concilaire romain: et bien souvent
il s'agit d'un acte visant
à initier et s'engager dans la communauté. On le voit
l'intention est bien
différente de l'intention authentique de l'Eglise du
Christ. Et les orthodoxes
reconaissent désormais la validité du Baptême
catholique concilaire alors que la
pratique de celui-ci est souvent plus que jamais
douteuse!

Mois si je suis le raisonnement de certains
orthdoxes, tous ceux qui
n'appartienent pas à l'Eglsie orthodoxe ont des
Sacrements non seulement
illicites mais encore invalides. Je n'y crois pas. En
revanche, ce que je crois
c'est que dans le cas où ils sont supposés avoir reçu
le caractère sacerdotal,
ils devraient par motif de prudence, être
sytématiquement ré-ordonné (même s'ils
sont catholiques orientaux car ceux-ci´subissent
l'influence des occidentaux et
leurs liturgies est parfois aussi défigurée que celle
des occidentaux même si
chez eux grâce à Dieu, aucune réforem liturgique
officielle d'importance n'a été
réalisée). De même, il faudrait, plus que jamais, re-
baptser et re-chrisemer
tout le monde

Je vous souhaite à toutes et à tous un Saint
Carême.

Axel, catholique traditionnaliste admirateur de
l'orthdoxie et grand pécheur qui
demande pardon pour les offenses que j'ai pu vous
faire.

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